| "Hafiz (c. 1320-1390) is decidedly the greatest Iyric poet
of Iran, praised by the critics for the inimitability of his style and the
broad sweep of his meanings. He has enjoyed the esteem and admiration not
only of his fellow countrymen but also of Persian scholars and poetry lovers
outside Iran. The poet came to the notice of English readers for the first
time in 1771 when Sir William Jones published one of Hafiz's poems in his
book A Grammar of the Persian Language. The tradition initiated by Jones
was carried further by such translators of the 18th and 19th centuries as
John Richardson, Thomas Law, John Nott, John Haddon Hindley, Herman Bicknell,
E. H. Palmer, Gertrude Bell, Walter Leaf, and Henry Wilberforce Clarke."
- William Collins, The Persian Eclogues, 1742.
- John Richardson, A Specimen of Persian Poetry, 1774.
John Nott, Select Odes from the Persian Poet Hafiz, 1787.
- [BL catalogue: A Specimen of Persian Poetry, or odes of Hafez with
an English Translation and Paraphrase. Chiefly from the Specimen Poeseos
Persicæ of Baron Revizky ... With historical and grammatical
illustrations ... By J. Richardson. Pers. and Eng. pp. xx. 86. London,
John Haddon Hindley, Persian Lyrics; or Scattered poems from the
Diwan-e-Hafez, 1800. >
- [BL catalogue: Kita¯b-i La¯lahza¯r az Di¯va¯n-i
H?a¯fiz?. Select Odes from the Persian poet Hafez translated
into English verse; with notes critical, and explanatory by J. Nott.
Pers. and Eng. pp. xii. 131. London, 1787. 4o.]
Poems from the Arabic and Persian; with notes. By the author
of Gebir [Walter
Savage Landor]. Printed by H. Sharpe, Warwick and sold by Messrs.
Rivington, London, 1800.
- [BL catalogue: Persian Lyrics, or scattered poems, from the Diwani-i-Hafiz:
with paraphrases in verse and prose, a catalogue of the Gazels as
arranged in a manuscript of the works of Hafiz in the Chetham Library
at Manchester, and other illustrations. Pers. and Eng. pp. 54. London,
Southey, Thalaba the Destroyer, 1801.
- The work is in fact a poetical hoax: the poems are by Landor himself
and imitations not of originals but of the imitations of Sir William
Jones, and John Nott's Select Odes from the Persian Poet Hafiz
R. Southey, The Curse of Kehama, 1810.
- "Thalaba, a young Muslim, sets himself to destroy the kingdom
of the magicians, Domdaniel, under the sea. With the aid of a magic
ring he overcomes his enemies, and destroys the sorcerers and their
kingdom. He sacrifices his life in doing so, but is reunited in Paradise
with his wife. The poem was attacked by the Edinburgh Review, and
sales were poor." >
Moore, Intercepted letters or the Twopenny Post-bag, by Thomas
Browne the Younger, 1813.
- "relating the story of Kehama, the cruel Raja of the world,
and the peasant Ladurlad, who is cursed for his endeavour to protect
his daughter Kailyal from the lust of Arvalan, Kehama's son. After
many vicissitudes, based on complex Hindu mythology, Kehama finds
himself under the dominion of the lord of Hell, while Ladurlad and
Kailyal are transported to heaven. Mme de Staël, writing to Byron
on the subject of oriental tales, refers to 'Southey's unsaleables'."
Th. Moore, Lalla Rookh. An Oriental Romance, 1817. >
- this went through upward of fourteen editions
- OED: "1813 Moore Post-bag vi. 69 The tender Gazel I enclose
Is for my love, my Syrian Rose."
P.B. Shelley (17921822), From
the Arabic: An Imitation, written 1820, published 1824 (Posthumous
Clarence Mangan (1803-1849), The
Karamanian Exile, Kincora,
then no More (Rückert) [more].
Hermann Bicknell (1830-1875), Hafiz of Shi´ra´z: selections
from his poems translated from the Persian [Edited by A. S. Bicknell.],
London, 1875. >
- "The internal rhyme followed by a refrain captures the music
of the ghazal." >
- "R. M. Hewitt points out another ghazal device in a poem
of Shelley's that is not otherwise oriental:
Less oft is peace in Shelley's mind
Then calm in waters seen.
Whether accidental or intentional, this verse has the poet's takòallosá
(pen-name) woven into the last couplet of the ghazal." (ibid.)
curieuses sur la Renaissance Orientale des frères Humboldt, d'August
Schlegel et d'autres, Cromohs, 6, 2001.
Literature and its influence on Europe and America from 17th Century up
to the present time